Macula lutea — the Latin term for “yellow spot” — is the retinal region most sensitive to light and therefore the point of highest acuity. This also means that the slightest changes in this region will already have a major impact on the visual acuity.
At an early stage, the disease appears as depositions under the retina (drusen) and pigment rarefaction of the retinal pigment epithelium.
At later stages a distinction is made between two types:
- dry AMD with an increasing rarefaction of the macular pigment epithelium and a slowly progressing impairment of the visual acuity over a number of years. Unfortunately, the therapeutic options for this type of AMD are limited.
- exudative AMD is the disease’s aggressive form which is caused by macular edemas and should be treated as soon as possible after the diagnosis. Special medication (e. g. Lucentis, Eylea) that can be administered directly to the eye are important methods of treatment for this type of AMD, but in some cases a laser eye treatment is recommendable.